Transcript The relative paralysis of our arteries for hours after eating fast food and cheesecake may also occur after olive oil. Olive oil was found to have the same impairment to endothelial function as the rest of these high-fat meals. Hundreds of studies have shown that the test can give a false negative result. Other oils have also been shown to have deleterious results on endothelial function; a significant and constant decrease in endothelial function three hours after each meal, independent of the type of oil, and whether the oil was fresh, or deep fried. Olive oil may be better than omega rich oils, or saturated fats, but most of the studies showing adverse effects were done on regular, refined olive oil, not extra virgin. But what does that mean for our arteries?
Beachy Head evacuated after massive ‘chlorine cloud’
Rock analysis suggests France cave art is ‘oldest’ May 7, The oldest footprints of modern-day man are seen in the Chauvet cave discovered in Experts have long debated whether the sophisticated animal drawings in a famous French cave are indeed the oldest of their kind in the world, and a study out Monday suggests that yes, they are.
The smooth curves and fine details in the paintings of bears, rhinoceroses and horses in the Chauvet cave in southern France’s picturesque Ardeche region are so advanced that some scholars thought they dated from 12, to 17, years ago.
DEATH BY VACCINATION. PART OF THE WATCHDOG USA NETWORK. If vaccines were safe, there would not be a VAERS COURT to pay out Billions of Tax Dollars to families of dead and crippled children.
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The accumulation of cosmogenic chlorine-36 in rocks: a method for surface exposure dating.
Full citation Abstract International audienceCosmic-ray exposure dating of preserved, seismically exhumed limestone normal fault scarps has been used to identify the last few major earthquakes on seismogenic faults and recover their ages and displacements through the modelling of the content of in situ [36Cl] cosmonuclide of the scarp rocks. However, previous studies neglected some parameters that contribute to 36Cl accumulation and the uncertainties on the inferred earthquake parameters were not discussed.
Through a series of synthetic profiles, we examine the effects of each factor on the resulting [36Cl], and quantify the uncertainties related to the variability of those factors. Those most affecting the concentrations are rock composition, site location, shielding resulting from the geometry of the fault scarp and associated colluvium, and scarp denudation. In addition, 36Cl production mechanisms and rates are still being refined, but the importance of these epistemic uncertainties is difficult to assess.
We then examine how pre-exposure and exposure histories of fault-zone materials are expressed in [36Cl] profiles.
Date: 1/13/ – AM Name: Dandida Kathy Parsons Email: [email protected] Site: http:// Location: Nashville, tn, God Bless the USA.
Many swimming pools include chlorine-based chemicals to keep the water safe to swim in. Members Group 7 are also known as Halogens. The other halogens – that is, members of the same group are Fluorine , Bromine , Iodine and Astatine. These have some properties in common with chlorine and there are also certain “trends” or patterns in the variation of properties across this group of elements.
Each chlorine atom consists of 17 protons , 17 electrons plus a quantity of neutrons whose exact number depends on the particular isotope of chlorine in most cases there are 18 neutrons in each atom of chlorine. History and Discovery of Chlorine The most common compound of chlorine is sodium chloride, which is also known as “common salt” or “table salt”.
Sodium chloride has been known and used for thousands of years. Archaeologists have found evidence of rock salt being used as early as BC and brine since even earlier. Elemental chlorine has only been recognised much more recently. Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhem Scheele is credited with the “discovery” first observation of the element chlorine gas Cl2 because in he released a few drops of hydrochloric acid onto a piece of the mineral pyrolusite, whose chemical name is manganese dioxide.
The result was a greenish-yellow gas that he called “dephlogisticated muriatic acid air” and which later became known as “chlorine”. Initially Scheele thought that the greenish-yellow gas he observed was an oxide produced as a result of a reaction of the mineral with the hydrochloric acid.
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Share this article Share Many die within minutes of inhaling the gas. The maximum life expectancy is ten minutes after exposure. Those lucky enough to survive, due to receiving a much smaller exposure — such as from touching a contaminated person — often suffer permanent nerve and brain damage. The discovery of the nerve agent — meaning it acts upon the nervous system — came after the Third Reich high command ordered scientists to develop pesticides and insecticides to ensure Germany did not need to rely on imported food while it prepared for war.
Schrader, 33, headed up a team assigned to the task. Having failed to make powerful insecticides from fluoride, he decided to mix phosphorus with cyanide.
Nov 10, · The Asahi Shimbun is widely regarded for its journalism as the most respected daily newspaper in Japan. The English version offers selected articles from the vernacular Asahi Shimbun.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Principles of isotopic dating All absolute isotopic ages are based on radioactive decay , a process whereby a specific atom or isotope is converted into another specific atom or isotope at a constant and known rate. Most elements exist in different atomic forms that are identical in their chemical properties but differ in the number of neutral particles—i. For a single element, these atoms are called isotopes.
Because isotopes differ in mass, their relative abundance can be determined if the masses are separated in a mass spectrometer see below Use of mass spectrometers. Radioactive decay can be observed in the laboratory by either of two means: The particles given off during the decay process are part of a profound fundamental change in the nucleus. To compensate for the loss of mass and energy , the radioactive atom undergoes internal transformation and in most cases simply becomes an atom of a different chemical element.
In terms of the numbers of atoms present, it is as if apples changed spontaneously into oranges at a fixed and known rate. In this analogy , the apples would represent radioactive, or parent, atoms, while the oranges would represent the atoms formed, the so-called daughters. Pursuing this analogy further, one would expect that a new basket of apples would have no oranges but that an older one would have many.
In fact, one would expect that the ratio of oranges to apples would change in a very specific way over the time elapsed, since the process continues until all the apples are converted. In geochronology the situation is identical. A particular rock or mineral that contains a radioactive isotope or radio-isotope is analyzed to determine the number of parent and daughter isotopes present, whereby the time since that mineral or rock formed is calculated.
Earth is constantly bombarded with primary cosmic rays , high energy charged particles — mostly protons and alpha particles. These particles interact with atoms in atmospheric gases, producing a cascade of secondary particles that may in turn interact and reduce their energies in many reactions as they pass through the atmosphere. By the time the cosmic ray cascade reaches the surface of Earth it is primarily composed of neutrons.
In rock and other materials of similar density, most of the cosmic ray flux is absorbed within the first meter of exposed material in reactions that produce new isotopes called cosmogenic nuclides. At Earth’s surface most of these nuclides are produced by neutron spallation.
Dating – Principles of isotopic dating: All absolute isotopic ages are based on radioactive decay, a process whereby a specific atom or isotope is converted into another specific atom or isotope at a constant and known rate. Most elements exist in different atomic forms that are identical in their chemical properties but differ in the number of neutral particles—i.e., neutrons—in the nucleus.
However, it cannot oxidize fluoride salts to fluorine. It makes a variety of interhalogen compounds such as the chlorine fluorides, chlorine monofluoride ClF , chlorine trifluoride ClF3 , chlorine pentafluoride ClF5. Chlorides of bromine and iodine are also known. Organochloride Chlorine is used extensively in organic chemistry in substitution and addition reactions.
Chlorine often imparts many desired properties to an organic compound , in part due to its electronegativity. Some organochlorine compounds are also serious pollutants, either as side products of industrial processes or as persistent pesticides. Many important industrial products are produced via organochlorine intermediates.
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At standard temperature and pressure , two chlorine atoms form the diatomic molecule Cl2. Chlorine is a greenish-yellow, noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The bonding between the two atoms is relatively weak only of Along with fluorine , bromine , iodine and astatine , chlorine is a member of the halogen series that forms the group 17 of the periodic table—the most reactive group of elements.
Frequently asked question pool spa 19 January 9: Chlorine 19 January 9:
Meteorite – Association of meteorites with asteroids: If meteoritic material comes from specific regions of the asteroid belt, then the asteroids in such regions should have the chemical and mineralogical composition observed in the meteorites. The surface mineralogical composition of asteroids, in principle, can be determined directly by observations from Earth of the fraction of sunlight.
Have a shower before swimming to remove any make up, dry skin flakes, hair products and body lotion. These residues can also react with the chlorine to create chloramine irritants. An occasional swim is unlikely to do much harm, unless you are particularly sensitive to chlorine. But experts suggest anyone who swims once a week or more should be wary. Another more recent study of 50 elite athletes, published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, showed that almost all the swimmers they examined had inflamed lung tissue, with those who spent the most time in chlorinated pools showing most changes.
Children are thought to be particularly at risk because they tend to spend longer in the pool than adults and are more likely to ingest water. This is why some experts believe persistent exposure to chemicals in cleaning products such as chlorine may also be responsible for the increase in allergies in the past 50 years. Dr Leila Jahangiri, a clinical associate professor at the New York College of Dentistry, recently issued a warning to people with swimming pools in their homes to keep a close eye on the chlorine and pH levels.
Conversely, if levels of chlorine are too low, bacteria can linger. Then when the cornea is submerged, washing away its protective tear film, eyes are left vulnerable to the bugs. This can cause conjunctivitis. Leave for five minutes, then rinse. The red pigment should help neutralise the green colour.
Chlorides of bromine and iodine are also known. Chlorine oxidizes bromide and iodide salts to bromine and iodine, respectively, but cannot oxidize fluoride salts to fluorine. Organochloride Chlorine often imparts many desired properties to an organic compound , in part owing to the relative inertness of the C-Cl bond. Organic chloride compounds tend to be less reactive in nucleophilic substitution reactions than the corresponding bromide or iodide derivatives, but they tend to be cheaper.
Chlorine is used extensively in polymers and in organic chemistry. Several general approaches exist for the formation of C-Cl bonds.
Withdrawn Standards A4- Withdrawn Specification for Medium-Carbon-Steel Splice Bars A5- Withdrawn Specification for High-Carbon Steel Joint Bars.
This is what archaeologists use to determine the age of human-made artifacts. But carbon dating won’t work on dinosaur bones. The half-life of carbon is only 5, years, so carbon dating is only effective on samples that are less than 50, years old. Dinosaur bones, on the other hand, are millions of years old — some fossils are billions of years old. To determine the ages of these specimens, scientists need an isotope with a very long half-life. Some of the isotopes used for this purpose are uranium , uranium and potassium , each of which has a half-life of more than a million years.
Unfortunately, these elements don’t exist in dinosaur fossils themselves. Each of them typically exists in igneous rock, or rock made from cooled magma. Fossils, however, form in sedimentary rock — sediment quickly covers a dinosaur’s body, and the sediment and the bones gradually turn into rock. But this sediment doesn’t typically include the necessary isotopes in measurable amounts.
Fossils can’t form in the igneous rock that usually does contain the isotopes.
Share this article Share He said: It hung about and didn’t move yesterday because there was no wind. The cloud seems to have dispersed today though.
Heroes and Villains – A little light reading. Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many.
Dixon, Beiling Liu, H. Turin, and Andrew V. Wolfsberg, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico ABSTRACT Chlorine , including the natural cosmogenic component and the component produced during atmospheric nuclear testing in the ‘s and ‘s bomb pulse , is being used as an isotopic tracer for groundwater infiltration studies at Yucca Mountain, a potential nuclear waste repository.
Rock samples have been collected systematically in the Exploratory Studies Facility ESF , and samples were also collected from fractures, faults, and breccia zones. Related to this need is the identification of preferential fluid pathways – features such as faults and fractures through which water may largely bypass the rock matrix. These needs are being addressed by chlorine isotopic studies of surface samples, drill cores and cuttings, and, most recently, samples from the Exploratory Studies Facility ESF.
The ESF is an m-diameter tunnel beneath Yucca Mountain, extending as deep as the potential repository level. The tunnel exposures allow detailed characterization of the petrologic and structural settings of sample sites. Chlorine investigations are part of an extensive hydrologic testing program in the ESF. The isotopic studies are fully integrated with mineralogic and textural analysis of transmissive features and with numerical modeling of groundwater infiltration.